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JANUARY 2019       TAP TIMES          -6-
                                                                 Berkeley Lab. “If we use existing tech-
                                                                 nologies and make no more discoveries,
                  New circuits (from 4)                          the energy consumption is going to be
                                                                 large. We need new science-based break-
                                                                 throughs.”
        “A number of critical techniques need to
        be developed to allow these new types
        of computing devices and architectures,”                 Spin-orbit materials
        said Manipatruni, who combined the func-                 Paper co-author Ian Young, a UC Berkeley
        tions of magneto-electrics and spin-orbit                Ph.D., started a group at Intel eight years
        materials to propose MESO.                               ago, along with Manipatruni and Dmitri
                                                                 Nikonov, to investigate alternatives to
                                                                 transistors.
        The next transistor
        “We are trying to trigger a wave of inno-                Five years ago they began focusing on
        vation in industry and academia on what                  multiferroics and spin-orbit materials, so-
        the next transistor-like option should look              called “topological” materials with unique
        like.”                                                   quantum properties.

        The need for more energy-efficient com-                  “Our analysis brought us to this type of
        puters is urgent. The Department of En-                  material, magneto-electrics, and all roads
        ergy projects that, with the computer chip               led to Ramesh,” said Dr. Manipatruni.
        industry expected to expand to several
        trillion dollars in the next few decades,
        energy use by computers could skyrocket
        from 3 percent of all U.S. energy con-
        sumption today to 20 percent, nearly as
        much as today’s transportation sector.



        IoT hampered
        Without more energy-efficient transistors,
        the incorporation of computers into ev-
        erything—the so-called internet of things
        (IoT)—would be hampered.



                                                                          Dr. Manipatruni on the lecture stage
        Without new science and technology,
        Ramesh said, America’s lead in mak-
        ing computer chips could be upstaged by                  More than one collective state
        semiconductor manufacturers in other                     Multiferroics are materials whose atoms
        countries.                                               exhibit more than one “collective state.”


        “Because of machine learning, artificial                 In ferromagnets, for example, the mag-
        intelligence and IOT, the future home, the               netic moments of all the iron atoms in the
        future car, the future manufacturing capa-               material are aligned to generate a perma-
        bility is going to look very different,” said            nent magnet. In ferroelectric materials,
        Ramesh, who until recently was the asso-                 on the other hand, the positive and nega-
        ciate director for Energy Technologies at                                                          Page 8
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